Monday, May 28, 2018
New Set Sightings

Yes, we have new Set sightings, to which I've applied some investigative efforts,

We have new photos of the relief from the temple of Amon at Hibis in the Khargas oasis, which features a falcon-headed Set giving the serpent (which is uncreated, always existing, and with only one terrible desire, to return everything in creation to a state of non-existence) a blow to spare all of creation from this awful fate.

How do we know it is Set that is featured and not one of the many Horus deities? It is because of the identifying glyphs in the upper right. Previously, I lacked a photo good enough to see this important detail. Now we do!

In this view, we can see how Set's name was spelled (at upper right)(Photo by Iris Meijer)
We can read "Sutekh", one of the ways his name is pronounced:

(See rest of name spelling variations in the pdf under this link

I encountered another one of the name variations for the god Set in Maj Sandman Holmberg's _The God Ptah_:

"Rameses III also erected buildings within the temple-area of Ptah, but of these we have no archaeological remains. We know of them, however, through contemporary Egyptian texts."

One of these mysterious missing temples included one to the god Set (aka "Sutekh"). Gardiner thought that one mention of a missing temple
"refers to the temple of Ptah at Pi-Ramesse, the Ramesside Delta residence. He refers to a passage in the section of Pap. Harris. (pl. 60.2 seq.), where Rameses III's donations to minor temples are mentioned, and where the King says: >> I have made a large temple, enlarged in the making in the temple of Sutekh of Rameses III ... it is called "The building of Rameses III in the temple domains of Sutekh...>> (273)"(Lund, C.W.K. Cleerup, 1946), page 211

The number "273" refers to an illustration of the hieroglyphs in the back of the book:

This features a different way to spell "Sutekh".

It's quite tricky when the spellings are so variable. However, it's kept rather simple in Unas' pyramid. This pharaohs's artists just used the Set animal:

Photographed by James Whitfield

I was very keen to learn more about this almost solo hieroglyph. I did learn it is on the north wall of the sarcophagus chamber. I tried to line up the glyphs with the provided translation, but wasn't able to come to an adequate surmise.

I wasn't about to figure out the phrase for the following Set glyph, either. But I did determine it is on the sarcophagus chamber's south side. Perhaps it is from "Utterance 215", but that mentions Set several times and I was able to find only the one hieroglyph. Of course, the writer may be referring to Set using other hieroglyphs.

Photographed by James Whitfield, Sarcophagus chamber, south wall

The following photo is from the antechamber:

Photographed by James Whitfield
This section is found on the north wall of the antechamber.

I'm not certain, but this may be from "Utterance 305", in which Unas and the gods talk:

473: Are you then a god whose places are pure?
(I) come from a pure place!
Stand (here) Unas, says Horus.
Sit (here) Unas, says Seth.
Take this arm, says Re.

I'm thinking this may be correct, because a "Ra" hieroglyph appears so soon after that of Set.

I had more certainty tracking down the Set hieroglyph in Heidi Kontkanen's photo:

This section is also found on the north wall of the antechamber.

And I was able to track down the phrase from which it comes!

Vincent Brown uses a translation which calls the larger section from which this phrase comes "Utterance 308":

Utterance 308
487: To say the words:
"Hail to you, Horus in the Horite Sites!
Hail to you, Seth in the Sethan Sites!
Hail to you, Reed God (jArw) in the Fields of Rushes!

488: Hail to you, the Two Harmonious Ones,
daughters of the four gods who are at the head of the Great Castle (Hw.t aA.t),
you who came out at the voice of Unas, naked!

489: Unas saw you, as Horus saw Isis.
Unas saw you as Neheb-kau saw Serqet.
Unas saw you as Sobek saw Neith.
Unas saw you as Seth saw the Two Harmonious Ones."

We have another translation, to provide balance and further insight:

In James P. Allen's book, this section is called
Greetings, Horus in the Horus-Mounds!
Greetings, Seth in the Seth-Mounds!
Greetings, Reed, in the Marsh of Reeds!
Greetings, you two reconciled gods,
twin children of the four foremost gods of the Big Enclosure,
who invoked Unis naked!
Unis has looked at you like Horus looks at Isis,
Unis has looked at you like Kas-Assigner looks at Selket,
Unis has looked at you like Sobek looks at Neith,
Unis has looked at you like Set looks at the two reconciled gods.

_The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts_, by James P. Allen,
(Society of Biblical Literature, 2005), page 58
James P. Allen has noted that "the two reconciled gods" are Horus and Set

Neheb-kau is the name of the deity, while "assigning of Kas" is his role.

I have more Set sightings to come, including a stele featuring Ramses I and a stele with Hathor and Set! But I will share those another day, hopefully soon!

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